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(1)一般现在时表示没有时限的持久存在的动作或状态或现阶段反复发生的动作或状态,常和副词 usually,often,always sometimes, regularly,near,occasionally,every year, every week 等连谩@纾?
1)The moon moves round the earth..
2)Mr. Smith travels to work by bus every day.
(2)在由after,until,before,once,when,even if,in case,as long as,as soon as,the moment 以及 if,unless 等引导的时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,通常用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:
1)I will tell him the news as soon as I see him.
2)I will not go to countryside if it rains tomorrow.
(3)某些表示起始的动词,可用一般现在时表示按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作,这类动词有:be,go,come,start,depart,arrive,begin,leave 等。例如:
1)The plane leaves at three sharp.
2)The new teachers arrive tomorrow.
(4)在由why,what,where,whoever,who,that,as 等引导的从句中,也常用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:
1)Free tickets will be given to whoever comes first.
2)You’ll probably be in the same train as I am tomorrow.
We went to the pictures last night and saw a very interesting film.
1)He always went to class last.
2)I used to do my homework in the library.
(注意与be used to doing短语的区别)
I shall graduate next year.
1)be going to +v在口语中广泛使用,表示准备做或将发生的事情。例如:
I’m going to buy a house when we’ve saved enough money.
2)be to +v表示计划安排要做的事,具有“必要”的强制性意义。例如:
I am to play tennis this afternoon.
3)be about to +v表示即将发生的事情。例如:
He was about to start.
4)be due to +v表示预先确定了的事, 必定发生的事。例如:
The train is due to depart in ten minutes.
5)be on the point/verge of +v – ing 强调即将发生的某种事态。例如:
The baby was on the point of crying when her mother finally came home.
(1)表示现在正在进行的动作,常与now,right now,at the mother,for the time being,for the present等连用。例如:
Don’t disturb her. She is reading a newspaper now.
(2)表示现阶段经常发生的动作, 常与always,continually,forever,constantly等连用。例如:
My father is forever criticizing me.
They are leaving for Hong Kong next month.
(4)有些动词不能用进行时,这是一类表示“感觉,感情,存在,从属”等的动词。如:see,hear,smell,taste,feel,notice,look,appear,(表示感觉的词);hate,love,fear,like,want,wish,prefer,refuse,forgive(表示感情的动词);be,exist,remain,stay,obtain(表示存在状态的动词);have,possess,own,contain,belong,consist of,form(表示占有与从属的动词);understand,know,believe,think,doubt,forget,remember(表示思考理解的动词)。但是如果它们词义改变,便也可用进行时态。例如:
1)Tom looks pale. What’s wrong with him?
(look 在此为联系动词,意为“显得,看上去”)
2)Tom is looking for his books.
(look 在此为实义动词,意为“寻找”)
2. 过去进行时
1)We were discussing the matter when the headmaster entered.
2)Whenever I visited him, he was always writing at the desk.
3. 将来进行时
1)This time next day they will be sitting in the cinema.
2)What will you be doing at six tomorrow evening?
4. 完成进行时
1. 现在完成时
1)I have just finished my homework.
2)Mary has been ill for three days.
(2)常与现在完成时连用的时间状语有:since, for, during, over等引导出的短语;副词already, yet, just, ever, now, before, often, lately, recently等;状语词组this week (morning, month, year), so far, up to now, many times, up to the present等。例如:
1)I haven’t been there for five years.
2)So far, she hasn’t enjoyed the summer vacation.
3)There have been a lot of changes since 1978.
This (That, It) is (was) the first (second…) time +定语从句;This (That, It) is (was) the only (last) + n +定语从句;This (That, It) is (was) +形容词最高级+ n +定语从句。如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词通常用现在完成时;如果主句谓语动词是一般过去时,从句谓语动词通常用过去完成时。例如:
(1)This is one of the rarest questions that have ever been raised at such a meeting.
(2)There was a knock at the door. It was the second time someone had interrupted me that evening.
2. 过去完成时
1)We had just had our breakfast when Tom came in.
2)By the end of last year they had turned out 5, 000 bicycles.
(2)动词expect, hope, mean, intend, plan, suppose, wish, want, desire等用过去完成时,表示过去的希望、预期、意图或愿望等没有实现。例如:
I had meant to take a good holiday this year, but I wasn’t able to get away.
1)was / were + to have done sth, 例如:
We were to have come yesterday, but we couldn’t.
2)intended (expected, hope, meant, planned, supposed, wished, wanted, desired) + to have done sth, 例如:
I meant to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so.
1)hardly, scarcely, barely + 过去完成时+ when + 过去时。例如:
Hardly had I got on the bus when it started to move.
2)no sooner +过去完成时+ than +过去时。例如:
No sooner had I gone out than he came to see me.
3)by (the end of ) +过去时间,主句中谓语动词用过去完成时。例如:
The experiment had been finished by 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon.
3. 将来完成时
将来完成时表示在将来某一时刻将完成或在另一个未来的动作发生之前已经完成的动作;也可以用来表示一种猜测。常与将来完成时连用的时间状语有:by (the time / the end of ) + 表示将来时间的短语和句子;before (the end of ) + 表示将来时间的词语或句子;when, after等加上表示将来动作的句子等。例如:
1)By this time tomorrow you will have arrived in Shanghai.
2)I shall have finished this composition before 9 o’clock.
3)When we get on the railway station, the train will probably have left.
4. 完成进行时
I have been looking for my lost book for three days, but I still haven’t found it.
It had been raining cats and dogs for over a week and the downpour had caused landslides in many places.
By the time you arrive tonight, she will have been typing for hours.
He says that he lives in Wuhan.
We hope that there will be many people at your party today.
“Did you hear that Bill finally sold the house?” “Yes, but I don’t know who bought it.”
“There’s a lot of excitement on the street.”
“There certainly is. Do you suppose the astronauts have returned?”
He said he was writing a novel.
The teacher wanted to know when we would finish the experiment.
He said his father had been an engineer.
The teacher told them since light travels faster than sound, lightning appears to go before thunder.
We insisted that we do it ourselves.
1)We use electricity to run machines. (主动语态)
2)Electricity is used to run machines. (被动语态)
1. 不能用于被动语态的动词和短语
(1)在英语中,不及物动词不能用于被动语态,但有些不及物动词(包括短语)容易引起误用。如:appear, belong, belong, die, escape, fall, happen, last, remain, succeed, occur, come true, take place, consist of。
(2)某些表示状态或特征的及物动词,如:become, contain, cost, fit, have, resemble, suit也没有被动语态。
2. 被动语态的时态形式
常用的被动语态有表1 所列的几种时态形式。
时间 一般时 进行时
现在 am asked am being asked
is asked is being asked
are asked are being asked
was be asked was being asked
were be asked were being asked
将来 shall be asked shall have been asked
will be asked will have been asked
过去 should be asked should have been asked
将来 would be asked would have been asked
3. 短语动词的被动语态
1)So far no correct conclusion has arrived at.
2)All the rubbish should be got rid of.
4.“get + -ed分词”的被动语态
“get + -ed分词”结构强调动作的结果,而非动作本身,常用来表示突发性的,出乎意料的偶然事件。例如:
The boy got hurt on his way home from work.
另外,“get + -ed分词”还可用于谈论为自己做的事,是主动的行为而不是被动的行为。例如:
get dressed(穿衣服) get divorced(离婚)
get engaged(订婚) get confused(迷惑不解)
get lost(迷路) get washed(洗脸)
get married(结婚)
5. 能带两个宾语和复合宾语的动词改为被动语态
(1) 能带两个宾语的动词改为被动语态时,一次只能由一个宾语作主语,另一个宾语被保留下来。例如:
1)We showed the visitors our new products.(主动语态)
2)The visitors were shown our new products.(被动语态)
3)Our new products were shown to the visitors.(被动语态)
1)The teacher appointed him League secretary.(主动语态)
2)He was appointed League secretary.(被动语态)
6. 被动语态与系表结构的区别
(1)The novel was well written.(系表结构)
(2)The novel was written by Diskens.(被动语态)
7. 少数动词的主动语态有时有被动的意思
例1:The book is selling remarkably well.
例2:The song sounds very beautiful.
例3:My watch needs cleaning. (= My watch needs to be cleaned).
能像need这样用的动词还有:want, require, deserve, do, owe, bind等。
例4:The meat is cooking.
例 5:The book written by the professor is printing