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1. 关于……人们有不同的观点。一些人认为……
There are different opinions among people as to ____ .Some people suggest that ____.
2. 俗话说(常言道)……,它是我们前辈的经历,但是,即使在今天,它在许多场合仍然适用。
There is an old saying______. It”s the experience of our forefathers,however,it is correct in many cases even today.
3. 现在,……,它们给我们的日常生活带来了许多危害。首先,……;其次,……。更为糟糕的是……。
Today, ____, which have brought a lot of harms in our daily life. First, ____ Second,____. What makes things worse is that______.
4. 现在,……很普遍,许多人喜欢……,因为……,另外(而且)……。
Nowadays,it is common to ______. Many people like ______ because ______. Besides,______.
5. 任何事物都是有两面性,……也不例外。它既有有利的一面,也有不利的一面。
Everything has two sides and ______ is not an exception,it has both advantages and disadvantages.
6. 关于……人们的观点各不相同,一些人认为(说)……,在他们看来,……
People’s opinions about ______ vary from person to person. Some people say that ______.To them,_____.
7. 人类正面临着一个严重的问题……,这个问题变得越来越严重。
Man is now facing a big problem ______ which is becoming more and more serious.
8. ……已成为人的关注的热门话题,特别是在年青人当中,将引发激烈的辩论。
______ has become a hot topic among people,especially among the young and heated debates are right on their way.
9. ……在我们的日常生活中起着越来越重要的作用,它给我们带来了许多好处,但同时也引发一些严重的问题。
______ has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day has brought us a lot of benefits but has created some serious problems as well.
10. 根据图表/数字/统计数字/表格中的百分比/图表/条形图/成形图可以看出……。很显然……,但是为什么呢?
According to the figure/number/statistics/percentages in the /chart/bar graph/line/graph,it can be seen that______ while. Obviously,______,but why?
1. 相反,有一些人赞成……,他们相信……,而且,他们认为……。
On the contrary,there are some people in favor of ___.At the same time,they say____.
2. 但是,我认为这不是解决……的好方法,比如……。最糟糕的是……。
But I don”t think it is a very good way to solve ____.For example,____.Worst of all,___.
3. ……对我们国家的发展和建设是必不可少的,(也是)非常重要的。首先,……。而且……,最重要的是……
______is necessary and important to our country”s development and construction. First,______.What”s more, _____.Most important of all,______.
4. 有几个可供我们采纳的方法。首先,我们可以……。
There are several measures for us to adopt. First, we can______
5. 面临……,我们应该采取一系列行之有效的方法来……。一方面……,另一方面,
Confronted with______,we should take a series of effective measures to______. For one thing,______For another,______
6. 早就应该拿出行动了。比如说……,另外……。所有这些方法肯定会……。
It is high time that something was done about it. For example. _____.In addition. _____.All these measures will certainly______.
7. 为什么……?第一个原因是……;第二个原因是……;第三个原因是……。总的来说,……的主要原因是由于……
Why______? The first reason is that ______.The second reason is ______.The third is ______.For all this, the main cause of ______due to ______.
8. 然而,正如任何事物都有好坏两个方面一样,……也有它的不利的一面,象……。
However, just like everything has both its good and bad sides, ______also has its own disadvantages, such as ______.
9. 尽管如此,我相信……更有利。
Nonetheless, I believe that ______is more advantageous.
10. 完全同意……这种观点(陈述),主要理由如下:
I fully agree with the statement that ______ because______.
1. 至于我,在某种程度上我同意后面的观点,我认为……
As far as I am concerned, I agree with the latter opinion to some extent. I think that ____.
2. 总而言之,整个社会应该密切关注……这个问题。只有这样,我们才能在将来……。
In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of ______.Only in this way can ______in the future.
3. 但是,……和……都有它们各自的优势(好处)。例如,……,而……。然而,把这两者相比较,我更倾向于(喜欢)……
But ______and ______have their own advantages. For example, _____, while_____. Comparing this with that, however, I prefer to______.
4. 就我个人而言,我相信……,因此,我坚信美好的未来正等着我们。因为……
Personally, I believe that_____. Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because______.
5. 随着社会的发展,……。因此,迫切需要……。如果每个人都愿为社会贡献自已的一份力量,这个社会将要变得越来越好。
With the development of society, ______.So it”s urgent and necessary to ____.If every member is willing to contribute himself to the society, it will be better and better.
6. 至于我(对我来说,就我而言),我认为……更合理。只有这样,我们才能……
For my part, I think it reasonable to_____. Only in this way can you _____.
7. 对我来说,我认为有必要……。原因如下:第一,……; 第二,……;最后……但同样重要的是……
In my opinion, I think it necessary to____. The reasons are as follows. First _____.Second ______. Last but not least,______.
8. 在总体上很难说……是好还是坏,因为它在很大程度上取决于……的形势。然而,就我个人而言,我发现……。
It is difficult to say whether _____is good or not in general as it depends very much on the situation of______. However, from a personal point of view find______.
9. 综上所述,我们可以清楚地得出结论……
From what has been discussed above, we may reasonably arrive at the conclusion that____.
10. 如果我们不采取有效的方法,就可能控制不了这种趋势,就会出现一些意想不到的不良后果,所以,我们应该做的是……
If we can not take useful means, we may not control this trend, and some undesirable result may come out unexpectedly, so what we should do is_____.

1.As far as …is concerned 就……而言
2.It goes without saying that… 不言而喻,…
3.It can be said with certainty that… 可以肯定地说……
4.As the proverb says, 正如谚语所说的,
5.It has to be noticed that… 它必须注意到,…
6.It’s generally recognized that… 它普遍认为…
7.It’s likely that … 这可能是因为…
8.It’s hardly that… 这是很难的……
9.It’s hardly too much to say that… 它几乎没有太多的说…
10.What calls for special attention is that…需要特别注意的是
11.There’s no denying the fact that…毫无疑问,无可否认
12.Nothing is more important than the fact that… 没有什么比这更重要的是…
13.what’s far more important is that… 更重要的是…
1.A case in point is … 一个典型的例子是…
2.As is often the case…由于通常情况下…
3.As stated in the previous paragraph 如前段所述
4.But the problem is not so simple. Therefore 然而问题并非如此简单,所以……
5.But it’s a pity that… 但遗憾的是…
6.For all that…对于这一切…… In spite of the fact that…尽管事实……
7.Further, we hold opinion that… 此外,我们坚持认为,…
8.However , the difficulty lies in…然而,困难在于…
9.Similarly, we should pay attention to… 同样,我们要注意…
11.In view of the present station.鉴于目前形势
12.As has been mentioned above…正如上面所提到的…
13.In this respect, we may as well (say) 从这个角度上我们可以说
14.However, we have to look at the other side of the coin, that is… 然而我们还得看到事物的另一方面,即 …
1.I will conclude by saying… 最后我要说…
2.Therefore, we have the reason to believe that…因此,我们有理由相信…
3.All things considered,总而言之 It may be safely said that…它可以有把握地说……
4.Therefore, in my opinion, it’s more advisable…因此,在我看来,更可取的是…
5.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that….通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论…
6.The data/statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that….通过数据我们得到的结论是,….
7.It can be concluded from the discussion that…从中我们可以得出这样的结论
8.From my point of view, it would be better if…在我看来……也许更好
1.Let’s take…to illustrate this.2.let’s take the above chart as an example to illustrate this.3. Here is one more example. 4.Take … for example. 5.The same is true of….6.This offers a typical instance of….7.We may quote a common example of….8.Just think of….
1. Some people think that …. 有些人认为…To be frank, I can not agree with their opinion for the reasons below. 坦率地说,我不能同意他们的意见,理由如下。
2. For years, … has been seen as …, but things are quite different now.多年来,……一直被视为……,但今天的情况有很大的不同。
3. I believe the title statement is valid because…. 我认为这个论点是正确的,因为…
4. I cannot entirely agree with the idea that ….我无法完全同意这一观点的… I believe….
5. My argument for this view goes as follows.我对这个问题的看法如下。
6. Along with the development of…, more and more….随着……的发展,越来越多…
7. There is a long-running debate as to whether….有一个长期运行的辩论,是否…
8. It is commonly/generally/widely/ believed /held/accepted/recognized that….它通常是认为…
9. As far as I am concerned, I completely agree with the former/ the latter.就我而言,我完全同意前者/后者。
10. Before giving my opinion, I think it is essential to look at the argument of both sides.在给出我的观点之前,我想有必要看看双方的论据。
六 表示比较和对比的常用句型和表达法
1. A is completely / totally / entirely different from B.2. A and B are different in some/every way / respect / aspect.3. A and B differ in…. 4. A differs from B in….5. The difference between A and B is/lies in/exists in….6. Compared with/In contrast to/Unlike A, B….7. A…, on the other hand,/in contrast,/while/whereas B….8. While it is generally believed that A …, I believe B….9. Despite their similarities, A and B are also different.10. Both A and B …. However, A…; on the other hand, B….11. The most striking difference is that A…, while B….
七 演绎法常用的句型
1. There are several reasons for…, but in general, they come down to three major ones.有几个原因……,但一般,他们可以归结为三个主要的。
2. There are many factors that may account for…, but the following are the most typical ones.有许多因素可能占…,但以下是最典型的。
3. Many ways can contribute to solving this problem, but the following ones may be most effective.有很多方法可以解决这个问题,但下面的可能是最有效的。
4. Generally, the advantages can be listed as follows.一般来说,这些优势可以列举如下。
5. The reasons are as follows.
八 因果推理法常用句型
1.Because/Since we read the book, we have learned a lot. 2. If we read the book, we would learn a lot. 3. We read the book; as a result / therefore / thus / hence / consequently / for this reason / because of this, we’ve learned a lot. 4. As a result of /Because of/Due to/Owing to reading the book, we’ve learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。
5. The cause of/reason for/overweight is eating too much.6.Overweight is caused by/due to/because of eating too much.7. The effect/consequence/result of eating too much is overweight. 8. Eating too much causes/results in/leads to overweight. 吃太多导致超重。

1occur 替换 think of Suddenly I had an idea that someone had broken into my house. → An idea occurred to me that someone had broken into my house. It occurred to me that someone had broken into my house.
2devote替换spend He spends all his spare time in reading. → He devotes all his spare time to reading.
3seek替换want / look for They sought ( wanted ) to hide themselves behind the trees. 4 average 替换ordinary I’m an average ( ordinary ) student.
5but替换very The film we saw last night was very interesting. → The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting. The film we saw last night was anything but boring.
6seat 替换sit On his way to school, he found an old lady seated (sitting) by the road, looking worried.
7 suppose 替换should He is supposed to ( should ) have driven more slowly.
8appreciate 替换thank Thank you very much for you help. → We appreciate your help very much. / Your help is much appreciated.
9the case替换 true I don’t think it is the case ( true ).
10on替换as soon as As soon as he arrived, he began his research. → On his arrival, he began his research..
11due to替换because of He arrived late due to ( because of ) the storm.
12cover替换walk/read After covering (walking) 10 miles, we all felt tired.
13contribute to替换 be helpful/useful Plenty of memory work is undoubtedly helpful to English study. → Plenty of memory work will undoubtedly contribute to English study.
14round the corner 替换 coming soon/ nearby ① The summer vacation is round the corner ( coming). Do you have any plans? ② Li Ming studies in a school round the corner (nearby).
15come to light替换discover The family were so pleased when they discovered the lost jewels. → The family were so pleased when the lost jewels came to light.
16have a ball替换have a good time/ enjoy oneself After visiting the workshop, we went back to school. Every one of us had a ball ( had a good time ).
17come up with替换think of Jack is very clever. He often comes up with ( thinks of ) new ideas.
18set aside替换save Some students think that they should set aside some of their pocket money for books. (2004天津卷)
19be of + n. 替换adj. The products are of high quality (very good ) and are sold everywhere in China.
20refer to 替换talk about/of, mention The professor you referred to (talked about ) is very famous.
21can not but / can not help but替换have to do I could not but (had to) go home.
22more often than not替换usually More often than not (Usually), the meaning of many words can be easily guessed.
23lest替换so that /in order that I wrote down his telephone number so that I would not forget it. → I wrote down his telephone number lest I (should) forget it.
24be long for sth. / be long to do sth. 替换want to do sth./wish for I want to see you very much. → I am long to see you.
25be caught up in/be crazy about/be absorbed in/be addicted to替换be interested in He is caught up in ( very interested in ) collecting stamps.
26more than替换very ① I’m very glad to learn that you are coming in September. → I’m more than glad to learn that you are coming in September. ( NMET 2003 ) ② If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help.(2004全国卷)
27perfect (ly) 替换good/ very well He speaks perfect ( good ) English./ He speaks English perfectly ( very well ).
28do sb a/the favor 替换help Would you please do me the favor ( help me ) to turn down the radio?
29the other day替换a few days ago The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle. ( NMET 1997 )
30in the course of替换during In the course of (During) the mountain-climbing, please help each other and pay special attention to your safety.
31the majority of替换most The majority of (Most of ) the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema.
32consist of替换be made up of Our class consists of ( is made up of ) 50 students.
33be worn out替换 be tired / broken ① After five hours’ non-stop work, we were all worn out (tired). ② My shoes are worn out (broken). Please buy me a new pair.
34become of替换 happen What do think has become of ( happened to ) him ?
35attend to替换look after
36on condition that替换as long as
38express one’s satisfaction with替换be satisfied with
39spare no efforts to do替换try one’s best to do
40many a 替换many
41be rushed off one’s feet 替换be busy in doing
42a handful of替换a little / some
43meanwhile替换at the same time
44get to one’s feet替换stand up
46occasionally替换sometimes /once in while
47for instance替换for example
48seldom替换not often
49wealthy替换 rich
51as a matter of fact 替换in fact
二高级句型结构 ◆ It句型 ① It will be + some time + before…
It won’t be long before humans visit the Mars.
② It is + adj./n.+ for sb to do sth.
It is very important for us to learn computer well, because it has changed our life so much. He said since it was a new model in China, it was impossible to fix it without the right spare parts.2008年湖北卷
③ It is + 被强调部分 + that„
1) It is what Yang Liwei has done that encourages us a lot.
2) Those who like reading extensively say it is through reading that we get our knowledge.
◆ more …than any other 表示最高级
Among the optional courses, spoken English and computer study are more popular than any one else.
◆ 名词从句
① It would mean a great deal to me to listen to the tape and learn what is covered in the talk. ( 2004 全国卷 Ⅲ )
② My hometown is no longer what it used to be.
◆ 非限制性定语从句
① The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street. It is not far from Jianxin Chinese School.→ The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street, which is not far from Jianxin Chinese School. (NMET 2003)
② It was quite an experience for us both, which I’ll never forget for the rest of my life. (2002 北京卷)
◆ 分词结构
① I don’t know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well. (NMET 2001)
② We’ll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV, playing games, and meeting people. (2004 全国卷Ⅱ)
③ Hearing this, a few people began to run after him.2004 辽宁卷
④ Born in American, Thomas Edison was a great scientist and inventor.2008年湖南卷
◆ with结构
① A terrible accident happened yesterday, with nine people killed and almost eighty injured.
② He was carrying a bedroll and a large bag on his shoulder, with a large suitcase in his left hand. ◆ 倒装句
① The library is to the east of the teaching building. → East of the teaching building is the library.
② Although we are tired, we are happy.→ Tired as we are, we are happy.
② Only in this way can he grow to be a useful man. (2002 上海卷)
④ May all your dreams come true! May our friendship last till the end of the universe.! 2007年湖南卷
◆ 被动语态
① Opinions are divided on the question. (NMET 2002)
② All classes are taught by teachers with rich experience in teaching foreign students. (2004全国卷 Ⅳ)
③ New factories, houses and roads have been built.(2004 江苏卷)
◆ 巧妙的改写 
1Only 改成no one but Only Tom passed the exam last week. → No one but Tom passed the exam. 
2as soon as …改成No sooner…than…/Hardly…when…/Immediately…/The moment No sooner had we arrived at the cinema than the film started. 
3have sb/sth do/done The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg broken (her leg was broken.). 
① However, they suggest fees should be charged low. → They suggest, however, fees should be charged low. (NMET 2002)
② I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. → This is a good chance for you, I think, to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. (2004 全国卷Ⅰ)
5 用同位语代替非限制性定语从句
Meimei, who is seven years old, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.→ Meimei, a girl of thirteen, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.
Shakespeare, a son from a poor family, a man of little education, wrote plays and poems that are read all over the world.2008年湖南卷
◆ 其它 
① 用with复合结构开头
With the sun setting in the west, we had to wave goodbye to the workers.
With his help, we’ve learned how to analyze and settle problems.2006年湖南卷
With the functions of inserting, deleting, moving and copying, it enables us to edit test, browse web page and download what we want.2009年江苏卷
② 用非谓语动词形式开头
1In order to improve our English, our school held an English contest. ⅱWalking towards the cinema, he met a foreigner. 
◆ 相关过渡语
1). 表示时间顺序: first, then, afterwards, meanwhile, laterfirst of all, finally, at last…
2). 表示空间顺序: near, next to, far from, in front of, on the left, on one side…
3). 表示比较、对照: like, unlike, such as, but, however, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, otherwise…
4). 表示因果关系: because, for, as a result, therefore, thus…
5). 表示递进关系: besides, what’s more, what was worse, moreover, furthermore, in addition, on top of…
6). 表示并列关系: and, as well as, also…
7). 表示总结性: in general, in a word, in short, on the whole, to sum up, in brief, to conclude…



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